startxref Variety of Muslim majority nations together with China’s all-weather ally Pakistan is sustaining a stoic silence over this not like protests in opposition […] Pakistan’s only major disordered in this field was witnessed in East Pakistan when in 1952 the Government headed by late Khwajah Nazimuddin refused to recognize officially Bengali as one of the State languages of Pakistan. Thus, in 1987 the newly matriculated class was overwhelmingly Urdu medium, and the gap between the English and Urdu medium schools had increased even more. The first education commission report under Ayub, the Sharif Commission in 1959, suggested that even though English should remain in the educational system, the national languages should now occupy a more prominent position. Controversy after independence regarding Medium of instructions (1947-1971) In self-governing Pakistan, government was framed by the pioneers of Muslim League. trailer But as it is apparent, if Urdu had actually been used in these provinces after that bill was passed, the NWFP government would not have to pass another bill in 2004 making Urdu the official language. However, this enthusiasm to bring in Urdu medium education was quickly criticised by the new education commission of the government. The Supreme Court judgment of September 8, 2015 goes even further and contemplates a more radical changeover. Before I posit my arguments on the language issue, let me first recap the history of the Urdu-English controversy in Pakistan. Urdu which is the national language of Pakistan. x�bb�a`b``Ń3� ���ţ�1� )�! It is funny that people nowadays focus on the language rather than the correct usage of it. In Pakistan, language has been contested since the inception of the country. Also, according to a separate survey it was established that nearly 44 per cent of books in Urdu were ideological and imparted strict versions of Pakistan and Islam. The commission also discouraged the teaching of regional languages and suggested that they should be left for informal conversation only. Pakistanis are proud of their culture and historical past and love to talk about politics and religion. Officer Who Raided Cafe’ Aylanto In Lahore For Openly Selling Alcohol Is Suspended & This Is Naya Pakistan! Just imagine, as has been reportedly contemplated, that the prime minister -- who knows English well -- will only converse with American President Obama in Urdu. 0000003772 00000 n So for Zia’s Islam, and by extension the Urdu cause, were political as well as ideological and religious tools. By the end of Ayub’s rregime not much progress had been made. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. New Delhi: In a significant embarassment Chinese language state-run tv has broadcast a controversial image of Prophet Hazrat Muhammad however Beijing’s all-weather ally Pakistan is sustaining a stoic silence over the problem. His commission suggested that not only should Urdu be the medium of education in the country for all classes, Arabic should also be taught as a compulsory subject. For instance, cricket in Pakistan is synonymous to ice hockey in Canada. The Urdu —English Controversy in Pakistan - Volume 31 Issue 1. Language is not only a medium of communication and instruction, it is a part of one’s identity. Pakistan is an ideologically inspired state and Urdu was a part of this ideology. Salman Ali & Saira Ahmed. While many nations are adopting English, Pakistan is going the opposite way, with the Supreme Court ruling for it to be replaced with Urdu as the official language. Pakistan is the medium of instruction used at primary level. However, only about 8% of Pakistanis speak Urdu as their first language. Only it seems that Peshawar University offered resistance and did not allow Urdu till much later. This measure of only imposing Urdu on state schools created much resentment in the students who graduated from these schools against the people who had been educated at private ones leading to increased social friction. Yes, Urdu was being taught in all schools, and the president was making his major speeches in Urdu, and that there were numerous Urdu conferences and related events, yet the language still widely used in education, courts and government remained English. The language question has always spawned activism and antagonism in Pakistan in, perhaps, equal measures. Only one consolation move was undertaken during Bhutto’s rule when the NWFP and Balochistan, where ironically only a small fraction of people spoke the language as compared to other provinces, declared Urdu as the official language in 1972. )” More than 70 languages are alive languages/spoken languages of Pakistan and its government is confused which language to select as MOI (medium of instruction) at primary level, i.e. Instead, try to keep a conversation around things you would talk about in Canada. ial language of the province and Urdu as the second official language. This was clearly exhibited by a Ministry of Education survey in Pakistani Urdu medium schools in 1988 which showed a huge majority of students advocated, among other things, a ban on music teaching; a ban on non-Muslim teachers in schools, especially elementary schools; expulsion of secular minded teachers from colleges; ban on cutting hair for women teachers; the making of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies compulsory in schools; and a complete ban on anything that could compromise the ideology of Pakistan. The tweet was controversial because although Punjabi is widely spoken in the region and in Pakistan as a whole, Sharif himself had never showed an affinity for the language. The government of Pakistan reflected that no other language but Urdu could be It has also been decided that in the schools where the medium of instruction is Urdu or an approved provincial language, English be taught as an additional language from class 1." And Nawab Muzaffar Hussain, the arch-reactionary, is particularly active in spreading language prejudice on the slogan of saving the Urdu language. This created a new social class in Pakistan, which was not exposed to English till after elementary school. 0000001486 00000 n The spirit of Pakistan asserted itself', and under Aurangzeb the 'Pakistan spirit gathered in strength'; his death 'weakened the Pakistan spirit'." The language used in the domains of power (like the higher bured the officer corps of the armed forces)is English, as it was during British rule. The Language Committee planned a large strike and protests in Dhaka for 21 February 1952 in East Pakistan. Still the Zia reign did not usher in an ascendancy of Urdu and the demise of English. (2 May 1989). However, not much changed. December 26, 2016. 0000001210 00000 n To stifle the protest plans, the Pakistani government imposed Section 144 in Dhaka which made assemblies, processions, and demonstrations illegal. They connected Urdu language with religious and Pakistani atmosphere. ��=.bъ����i������U4O�����"vN�w������� |�����~��J�3�Ù~J��h�t��s��ފE�^�� ��ٹ�;7u�;���j��;��T�v��VZ������9��S�ƒFAx�({V#�h��J�����Z���[7vx�}�U�T���%=��t��G~���_���o��d6�1'. Asia Pakistan: How to approach the issue of rape amid a political controversy. Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. %PDF-1.4 %���� The origin of Urdu goes back several centuries, and according to some historians, Urdu has evolved from an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the area around Delhi which absorbed words fro… The Zadari-led government between 2008-13 also did not change anything substainally, and even promoted English as the medium of instruction in government schools. One of the first actions of Zia was to order that all government speeches should now be in Urdu (17 April 1978). 0000003529 00000 n The Musharraf government reiterated this stance of the usage of English in all government schools but the damage of the 1980s was just too deep to be covered that soon and without adequate financial support from the government. The rule of the military dictator Zia ul-Haq was perhaps the most detrimental for the status of English, as well as Urdu, and the regional languages. Hence, by the time the Bhutto regime was ousted by Zia in 1976, a lot of lip service and little concrete steps had been taken to establish Urdu as the official language of Pakistan. 558 13 0000001721 00000 n First, the replacement of English by Urdu somehow assumes that English is a ‘foreign’ language. The Bhutto governments, having pro-Western stances and education in most cases, were more sympathetic towards re-introducing English as a medium of instruction in state schools. Also, as Zia had heavily Islamised the school curricula, so that even science was supposed to impart Islamic values, these students were radically religious and uncompromising. 0000000569 00000 n In the Punjab, all government schools switched over to the English medium under Shahbaz Sharif and the usuage of English further spread due to an increasingly international economy and connections. Pakistani textbooks controversy. It said, "We cannot help regretting that some of our universities should have preferred to be swayed more by sentiment than by a dispassionate judgement in accelerating the pace of changeover [to Urdu] beyond all reasonable proportions.". Not only is there a question of lost in translation, but also the loss of a personal and direct connection between the speakers conversing in the same language. H��W�r��}�W�#�a�Almm�,���Z��f+q�0��� ������ $%BrRy 0 =}9}���Uc�ZF���O?�~s-.|�����|�u{�zq�j��E ����H, In doing so the first PPP government declared: "It has been decided that option shall be given to adopt English as medium of instruction in all subjects from class 1. It began with Karachi University in 1964, Punjab in 1966 and Sindh in 1966 where the Sindhi medium was also made available. 558 0 obj <> endobj If history is any guide, the recent moves towards immediately enforcing Urdu as an official language seem problematic. Somehow, from the start, Urdu in Pakistan has been controversial. Somehow assumes that English is a ‘ foreign ’ language Sindhi medium was also made available in and. Recap the history of the country proud of their culture and historical past and love talk. Huge boost and soon educational institutions started offering degrees in the Urdu controversy. 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