What’s more, these far-flung galaxies were traveling away from us at speeds proportional to their distances. Dark energy is believed to act like a cosmological constant—a scalar field that exists throughout space. If I talk about the currently accepted cosmological theory about the evolution and origin of the universe. The earliest known galaxies existed by about 380 Ma. Someone is looking for the history of the big bang, creation of atoms, etc, only to find that he is looking at the history of the THEORIES about these matters. Despite being reionized, the universe remained largely transparent during reionization. Within the first 300 seconds of the existence of the universe, the elements helium, lithium, and heavy hydrogen (deuterium and Helium 3) form from the protons and neutrons by a process called nucleosynthesis. Protons and neutrons cannot exist yet, only leptons and quarks (with their force carriers, gluons, W and Z bosons and photons). The electromagnetic and weak interaction have not yet separated, and as far as we know all particles were massless, as the Higgs mechanism had not operated yet. Gravity reaches out. − Steady-state theories. These phase transitions can be visualized as similar to condensation and freezing phase transitions of ordinary matter. Current understandings and theories place tight limits on the abundance and mass of these objects. ", "Scientists confirm most distant galaxy ever", "Astronomers Claim to Find the Most Distant Known Galaxies", "Hobby-Eberly Telescope Helps Astronomers Learn Secrets of One of Universe's Most Distant Objects", "Astronomers Spot Most Distant Galaxy—At Least For Now", "Cosmos Controversy: The Universe Is Expanding, but How Fast? Cosmology draws on many branches of physics to study the universe's history. Fortunately, observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation can be used to date when star formation began in earnest. They continue to do so for about the next 370,000 years. 800 B.C.E. The exact timings of the first stars, galaxies, supermassive black holes, and quasars, and the start and end timings and progression of the period known as reionization, are still being actively researched, with new findings published periodically. The properties of dark matter that allow it to collapse quickly without radiation pressure, also mean that it cannot lose energy by radiation either. Initially, various kinds of subatomic particles are formed in stages. After that moment, all distances throughout the universe began to increase from (perhaps) zero because the FLRW metric itself changed over time, affecting distances between all non-bound objects everywhere. Lemaître used these findings to draw attention to his earlier paper, in which he explained the relationship between the distance of a galaxy and the recession velocity of that same galaxy. This composite image results from the … Some of the CMB fluctuations were roughly regularly spaced, because of the effect of baryonic acoustic oscillations. Other than perhaps some rare statistical anomalies, the universe was truly dark. Protons and electrons will recombine if energy is not continuously provided to keep them apart, which also sets limits on how numerous the sources were and their longevity. This is a required element of, Cosmology traditionally has assumed a stable or at least, As a side-effect, the weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force, and their respective, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 02:40. As of 2019, the earliest confirmed galaxies date from around 380–400 million years (for example GN-z11), suggesting surprisingly fast gas cloud condensation and stellar birth rates, and observations of the Lyman-alpha forest and other changes to the light from ancient objects allows the timing for reionization, and its eventual end, to be narrowed down. A slight matter-antimatter asymmetry from the earlier phases (, Electrons and atomic nuclei first become bound to form neutral, The time between recombination and the formation of. Around the same time as recombination, existing pressure waves within the electron-baryon plasma—known as baryon acoustic oscillations—became embedded in the distribution of matter as it condensed, giving rise to a very slight preference in distribution of large-scale objects. This timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries is a chronological record of the development of humanity's understanding of the cosmos over the last two-plus millennia. The physics of this electrostrong interaction would be described by a Grand Unified Theory. The inflationary period marks a specific period when a very rapid change in scale occurred, but does not mean that it stayed the same at other times. From about 9.8 billion years of cosmic time,[7] the slowing expansion of space gradually begins to accelerate under the influence of dark energy, which may be a scalar field throughout our universe. In several of the more prominent models, it is thought to have been triggered by the separation of the strong and electroweak interactions which ended the grand unification epoch. These features make it possible to study the state of ionization at many different times in the past. [40] In April 2019, this molecule was first announced to have been observed in interstellar space, in NGC_7027—a planetary nebula within our galaxy. So a range of models exist that explain why and how it took place—it is not yet clear which explanation is correct. Therefore, the energy of the universe, and its overall behaviour, is dominated by its photons. a [57] The current leading candidates from most to least significant are currently believed to be Population III stars (the earliest stars) (possibly 70%),[58][59] dwarf galaxies (very early small high-energy galaxies) (possibly 30%),[60] and a contribution from quasars (a class of active galactic nuclei).[56][61][62]. The picture shows the galaxy cluster XLSSC 006. Timeline of universe cosmologylists the sequence of cosmological theories and discoveries in chronological order.  (10%), where Therefore dark matter collapses into huge but diffuse filaments and haloes, and not into stars or planets. In essence, quantum fluctuations causing temperature differences in this inflation field (on the subatomic scale) get exponentially blown up to astrophysical sizes. However, this does not seem to be what happened—as far as we know, the universe was left with far more baryons than antibaryons. Dark energy is now believed to be the single largest component of the universe, as it constitutes about 68.3% of the entire mass-energy of the physical universe. There are several competing scenarios for the possible long-term evolution of the universe. 10 billion years: when dark energy, a mysterious force that cosmologists have yet to wholly pin down, starts to accelerate. , where In the case of indefinitely continuing metric expansion of space, the energy density in the universe will decrease until, after an estimated time of 10, Expansion of space accelerates and at some point becomes so extreme that even subatomic particles and the fabric of, For any value of the dark energy content of the universe where the negative pressure ratio is less than -1, the expansion rate of the universe will continue to increase without limit. The quark epoch began approximately 10−12 seconds after the Big Bang. Between about 10 and 17 million years the universe's average temperature was suitable for liquid water 273–373 K (0–100 Â°C) and there has been speculation whether rocky planets or indeed life could have arisen briefly, since statistically a tiny part of the universe could have had different conditions from the rest as a result of a very unlikely statistical fluctuation, and gained warmth from the universe as a whole.[4]. During its matter-dominated era, the expansion of the universe had begun to slow down, as gravity reined in the initial outward expansion. [26], However, Big Bang cosmology makes many predictions about the CνB, and there is very strong indirect evidence that the CνB exists, both from Big Bang nucleosynthesis predictions of the helium abundance, and from anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The lepton epoch follows a similar path to the earlier hadron epoch. It includes the Planck epoch, during which currently understood laws of physics may not apply; the emergence in stages of the four known fundamental interactions or forces—first gravitation, and later the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions; and the expansion of space itself and supercooling of the still immensely hot universe due to cosmic inflation, which is believed to have been triggered by the separation of the strong and electroweak interaction. Little is understood about physics at this temperature; different hypotheses propose different scenarios. In addition, the light will have travelled for billions of years to reach us, so any absorption by neutral hydrogen will have been redshifted by varied amounts, rather than by one specific amount, indicating when it happened. [5] Other theories suggest that they may have included small stars, some perhaps still burning today. But these are all still areas of active research. A number of cosmological theories satisfy both the cosmological principle and general relativity. It is not clear how this came about. The discovery that the universe was expanding meant that Einstein's model had to be abandoned, and in 1931 Georges Lemaître proposed a scientific explanation of … They arrive from a sphere with the radius of 46 billion light-years. So we can’t say much beyond that. From about 9.8 billion years of cosmic time,[7] the universe's large-scale behaviour is believed to have gradually changed for the third time in its history. The present-day universe is understood quite well, but beyond about 100 billion years of cosmic time (about 86 billion years in the future), uncertainties in current knowledge mean that we are less sure which path our universe will take. Some time after inflation, the created particles went through thermalisation, where mutual interactions lead to thermal equilibrium. Physics Letters B, 314(3-4), 298-302. For example, in a later epoch, a side effect of one phase transition is that suddenly, many particles that had no mass at all acquire a mass (they begin to interact differently with the Higgs field), and a single force begins to manifest as two separate forces. It is well known that the CMB has irregularities. B [69][70] "Dark" in this context means that it is not directly observed, but can currently only be studied by examining the effect it has on the universe. Before this epoch, the evolution of the universe could be understood through linear cosmological perturbation theory: that is, all structures could be understood as small deviations from a perfect homogeneous universe. We know the quark soup exists because we have created similar conditions inside particle accelerators. The twentieth century has seen cosmology transformed from metaphysics into a branch of physics, and the laws governing fundamental forces and elementary particles have been wedded to astronomical observations to produce a description of the past and present states of the visible universe. the introduction to general cosmological theory by roman savkovic; you will be provided with the simple explanation to a very complex question about how and when the universe started; and I promise, no big bang is involved and it will not take more than 10 minutes of your time Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death, Graphical timeline of the Stelliferous Era, Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric, suddenly and very rapidly changed in scale, List of the most distant astronomical objects, "The habitable epoch of the early Universe", "The age of the Galactic thin disk from Th/Eu nucleocosmochronology - III. by University of Bonn. Primordial black holes are a hypothetical type of black hole proposed in 1966,[27] that may have formed during the so-called radiation-dominated era, due to the high densities and inhomogeneous conditions within the first second of cosmic time. But the exact reasons why it happened are still being explored. These may also lead to unpredictable changes to the state of the universe which would not be likely to be significant on any smaller timescale. c In the opposite of the "Big Rip" scenario, the metric expansion of space would at some point be reversed and the universe would contract towards a hot, dense state. Matter continues to draw together under the influence of gravity, to form galaxies. Different stages of the very early universe are understood to different extents. 380, 000 years: when the nearly uniform soup cooled to about 3000 Kelvin, atoms formed nuclei and electrons. It would be expected that both baryons, and particles known as antibaryons would have formed in equal numbers. [49] These stars were the first source of visible light in the universe after recombination. This image reveals the age, density, geometry, and overall composition of the entire early universe. The most remarkable thing about this is that observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (from WMAP and ESO’s Planck observatory) agree with the prediction of inflation, providing the strongest evidence for this theory yet. So, let’s take a look at our universe from this era. These phase transitions in the universe's fundamental forces are believed to be caused by a phenomenon of quantum fields called "symmetry breaking". At some point around 200 to 500 million years, the earliest generations of stars and galaxies form (exact timings are still being researched), and early large structures gradually emerge, drawn to the foam-like dark matter filaments which have already begun to draw together throughout the universe. John D. Barrow. {\displaystyle (k_{B}T/\hbar c)^{3}} Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa theologiae, presented two versions of the cosmological argument: the first-cause argument and the argument from contingency.The first-cause argument begins with the fact that there is change in the world, and a change is always the effect of some cause or causes. According to the Lambda-CDM model, by this stage, the matter in the universe is around 84.5% cold dark matter and 15.5% "ordinary" matter. I understand and agree that registration on or use of this site constitutes agreement to its User Agreement and Privacy Policy. The matter in the universe is around 84.5% cold dark matter and 15.5% "ordinary" matter. For convenience I have split it into sections: Ancient World (20th Century B.C. [35] By mass, the resulting matter is about 75% hydrogen nuclei, 25% helium nuclei, and perhaps 10−10 by mass of lithium-7. From about 2 minutes, the falling temperature means that deuterium no longer unbinds, and is stable, and starting from about 3 minutes, helium and other elements formed by the fusion of deuterium also no longer unbind and are stable. (We do not have separate observations of very early individual stars; the earliest observed stars are discovered as participants in very early galaxies.) [citation needed], Events since the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, For the academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present day, see, Inflationary epoch and the rapid expansion of space, Electroweak epoch and early thermalization, Neutrino decoupling and cosmic neutrino background (CνB), Possible formation of primordial black holes, Recombination, photon decoupling, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), The Dark Ages and large-scale structure emergence, 12 gauge bosons, 2 Higgs-sector scalars, 3 left-handed quarks x 2 SU(2) states x 3 SU(3) states and 3 left-handed leptons x 2 SU(2) states, 6 right-handed quarks x 3 SU(3) states and 6 right-handed leptons, all but the scalar having 2 spin states, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRyden2003 (. [32] (Much of the rest of its mass-energy is in the form of neutrinos and other relativistic particles[citation needed]). Unlike gravity, the effects of such a field do not diminish (or only diminish slowly) as the universe grows. Composite subatomic particles emerge—including protons and neutrons—and from about 2 minutes, conditions are suitable for nucleosynthesis: around 25% of the protons and all the neutrons fuse into heavier elements, initially deuterium which itself quickly fuses into mainly helium-4. So, let us take a moment to delve into the Big Bang — into the timeline of everything that has ever existed. - 4th Century A.D.) Medieval and Renaissance World (5th Century A.D. - 16th Century) Early Modern World (17th Century - … Directly combining in a low energy state (ground state) is less efficient, so these hydrogen atoms generally form with the electrons still in a high energy state, and once combined, the electrons quickly release energy in the form of one or more photons as they transition to a low energy state. Structure formation in the Big Bang model proceeds hierarchically, due to gravitational collapse, with smaller structures forming before larger ones. And at 30 billion years, we could have what is known as a “Big crunch”. ρ Timeline. A comparatively small residue of hadrons remained at about 1 second of cosmic time, when this epoch ended. ‐spacetime becomes a flexible dynamic medium, warped by energy density • 1917 Willem de Sitter ‐first general relativistic cosmology, de Sitter Universe ‐empty expanding Universe with cosmological constant • … [25] A small amount of deuterium is left unfused because of the very short duration. This initial period of the universe's chronology is called the "Big Bang". The nature of universe is anything but simple, but cosmology has made leaps and bounds in such a short period of time because of technology and the rigors of the scientific method. 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