Among the 1,431 Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- ST34 sequences, 978 (68.34%) had genetic determinants contributing to the ASSuT profile, 108 (7.55%) conferred resistance to quinolones, and 82 (5.73%) conferred resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. These facultative anaerobes are well adapted to survive in condition with our without oxygen, allowing them to live in diverse environments . 2. Moreover, the proportion of double-positive samples (honeydew and homogenate) was more than twice (0.42, 0.34) the proportion when only one parameter was positive at the 24 (0.17, 0.08)- and 48 (0.08, 0.15)-h IAP time points. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica 4,[5],12:i:- sequence type 34 represents a worldwide public health risk. In the case of M. quadrilineatus, the highest transmission rate was observed when insects acquired S. enterica from inoculated leaves and transmitted it to noninoculated leaves after either 12- or 24-h IAPs (Fig. Proportion of S. enterica-positive samples resulting from transmission from inoculated leaf discs (vertical-stripe bars) or inoculated liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets (white bars) to noninoculated leaf discs at different inoculation access periods (IAP). Also, the presence of M. quadrilineatus and feeding damage of F. occidentalis enhanced the longevity of S. enterica on lettuce (13). Additionally, excretion of S. enterica from adult insects was tested following similar procedures. (10) recently reported that according to the National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System, the percentage of ASSuT-resistant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- from humans increased from 17% in 2009 to 59.1% in 2015 (out of all Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- clinical isolates from humans). The metadata of 1431 . It is certainly plausible to assume, however, that this redistribution of the pathogen could assist S. enterica to reach and exploit preferential colonization niches around the phyllosphere, even facilitating internalization. Overall, these results suggest that phytophagous insects may serve as potential vectors of S. enterica in association with plants. Dr. Elnekave is a veterinarian and epidemiologist who has been working as a postdoctoral fellow in the Veterinary Population Medicine Department, University of Minnesota, and is a faculty member in the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine at the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. 1. Recent studies have indicated that this organism displays evidence drug resistance. However, there was also a large proportion of insect samples whose homogenized sample was S. enterica positive at the 48-h IAP time point, for which the corresponding leaf discs or liquid diets were negative. In the field, plant surfaces can become contaminated with S. enterica in multiple ways (4), increasing the chances that phytophagous insects could infest and establish on contaminated plants. are facultative, being capable of b… Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food. This increase probably resulted to a large extent from ST34 strains, in which this phenotype is predominant. Plant inoculation with contaminated water was used to simulate overhead sprinkler irrigation. Plant inoculation.Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Yet associations between the collection location and the presence of blaCTX-M or qnrS1 genes were not significant (Table). Phytophagous hemipterans may contribute to S. enterica dispersal and colonization of the plant phyllosphere. Subspecies . All statistical analyses were performed using R software (34). Similar proportions of individuals from both species ingested S. enterica after a 24-h acquisition access period from inoculated leaf discs, but a significantly higher proportion of M. quadrilineatus retained the pathogen internally after a 48-h inoculation access period. However, even at the 48-h IAP time point, the transmission rate was approximately 20% when insects acquired from and transmitted the pathogen to liquid diets (Fig. Salmonella bacteria are widely distributed in domestic and wild animals. Elnekave, E., Hong, S. L., Lim, S., Boxrud, D., Rovira, A., Mather, A. E....Alvarez, J. It is known that the high protein content in honeydew attracts many other insects, such as flies, ants, and other predators, which require a substantial amount of protein to develop mature eggs (29, 44). Transmission experiments in which insects acquired the pathogen from either inoculated leaves or synthetic liquid diets showed that both M. quadrilineatusand M. persicaeinsects could acquire and transmit the pathogen for up to 48 h following acquisition (Fig. Since the late 1990s, reports of an emerging multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- strain have been published in Europe (1). In addition, AARGs conferring resistance to colistin (mcr-1/mcr-3/mcr-5; Appendix 1) were detected in isolates from Europe only (n = 5). Increasing antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoidal. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica can be separated into more than 2400 antigenically different serovars and the pathogenicity of most of these serovars is unspecified. The recovery of S. enterica from leaf discs and liquid diets postfeeding demonstrated that both species of insects were capable of transmitting the bacteria in ways that are not limited to mechanical transmission. The high frequency of outbreaks of produce-associated salmonellosis (3) suggests that humans are more likely to encounter Salmonella enterica from eating fresh produce than animal products (4). Vertical bars represent the proportion of S. enterica-positive samples; dotted sections represent the proportion of honeydew samples that were positive, but the corresponding noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diet was negative for S. enterica at the time when the sample was collected; and the solid sections represent the proportion of samples positive in both the honeydew and the corresponding noninoculated leaf discs or noninoculated liquid diet. Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address: Ehud Elnekave, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Results of these experiments were interpreted as the proportion of individual insects that successfully transmitted the bacteria from inoculated to healthy leaf discs, either by mechanical passage or contamination through excretion. For homogenized samples, vertical bars represent the proportion of S. enterica-positive samples; dotted sections represent the proportion of samples that had a negative external wash but were positive after homogenization; and the solid sections represent the proportion of samples positive in both external wash and homogenization. Proportion of S. enterica-positive samples resulting from transmission from inoculated leaf discs to noninoculated leaf discs (horizontal-stripe bars) or from inoculated liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets to noninoculated leaf discs (black bars) or to noninoculated liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets (gray bars) at different inoculation access periods (IAP). The exponential growth rate of the population was estimated at 0.316/year (averaged across all subset means; Figure 1). Insects were scored as contaminated after external wash (A) or homogenization of the whole sample (B). When insects were fed inoculated leaf discs for a 24-h AAP, a significantly higher proportion of external wash and homogenized M. persicae than M. quadrilineatus insects was positive for S. enterica (Fig. Insect honeydew is an aqueous solution consisting of various sugars and amino acids and constitutes a significant nutrient source and growth medium that could ultimately increase the survival of bacteria on the plant surface (23, 46, 48). 5 and 6). However, precise knowledge of the time of introduction and the initial influx of clinical cases caused by this serotype in the United States is not available because of inconsistent reporting before 2004 (3). Overall, our findings strengthen the need for further investigations to evaluate the potential acquisition and transmission of S. enterica by phytophagous insects under field conditions and to better determine their contribution as a risk factor for dispersal of human pathogens in a field prior to harvest. We especially thank Derek Wendt of Derek Simply for creating Fig. A recent outbreak investigation of sources of S. Wangata recovered isolates from humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the environment. These results suggest that S. enterica acquired by M. quadrilineatus insects is retained and excreted following exposure to the inoculated source, and S. enterica-positive honeydew could contribute to inoculation of hemipteran feeding sites. Message not sent. The fact that phytophagous insects feed frequently upon plant tissues and readily move from plant to plant, some of which are potentially contaminated with human pathogens, such as S. enterica, suggests that they could influence the dispersal of enteric pathogens in the field. Higher proportions of both external contamination and homogenate samples were observed when M. quadrilineatus insects were fed 2 consecutive noninoculated leaf discs than when M. persicae or M. quadrilineatus insects were fed noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diets, respectively (Fig. Moreover, there were no significant differences between proportions of positive, noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diets and the externally washed S. enterica-positive samples (Table 1). The 6 sequences from Europe were recovered from human sources; among sequences from the United States, 28 were from humans, 5 from food products, 6 from livestock, and 3 from other sources. In the agricultural environment, soil, surface and irrigation water, animals, and contaminated seeds are considered candidate reservoirs and facilitators of initial contact between S. enterica and plants (4, 7). Thus, the risk of a food-borne illness outbreak due to consumption of contaminated crop plants can be influenced by biotic factors, including phytophagous insects. Synanthropic and coprophagic insects are recognized as vectors of human enteric pathogens, and many have been implicated in not just the dispersal but also in the survival and multiplication of S. enterica (42). Transmission is usually person-to-person or animal-to-person via the faecal–oral route, through ingestion of the organisms via contaminated or improperly cooked foods. After external wash, each insect was then homogenized in the remaining liquid with a MINIMITE cordless grinding tool (Dremel, Racine, WI), and both the wash and the homogenate were separately enriched and plated on LB-kan and XLD-kan, respectively. The nutritional value of honeydew, and the copious amount that is excreted by phytophagous hemipterans, suggests that populations of S. enterica on the leaf surface might benefit from an infestation of those insects and their associated excreta. In the United States, approximately 80 cases of paratyphoid fever caused by S. Paratyphi A are reported each year, 90% of which are acquired during international travel. comm., 2019 Sep 23]). The six strains were mixed in a cocktail inoculum that was prepared as previously described (13). There are over 2,500 subtypes, including animal and human strains. In the case of M. persicae, high rates of mortality were observed in the experiment when aphids were fed only liquid diets (with and without S. enterica) for 72 h (24-h AAP and 48-h IAP); therefore, the experiment with this specific insect was halted. However, there were no significant differences between the proportions of samples that were only positive for either honeydew (24-h AAP or 24- and 48-h IAP) or insect homogenate. Also wash your hands after using the toilet, changing diapers, or helping someone with diarrhea clean up after using the toilet. Transmission of Salmonella enterica by Myzus persicae. Within each graph, the proportions of S. enterica-positive samples between treatments were significantly different from each other (chi-square analysis, P < 0.01). However, given the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates from that report (mostly not ASSuT) (2), they most likely belonged to the nonemerging ST19 clade, which was described elsewhere (4). It poses the most significant threat to immunocompromised hosts because it faces little colonization resistance from the host immune system. Insects can influence the dispersal and survival of bacterial pathogens in agricultural environments. The comparison of S. enterica excretion and localization showed that when M. quadrilineatus insects were fed noninoculated leaf discs following acquisition, the majority of the insects were externally or internally positive for S. enterica, independent of whether the honeydew was S. enterica positive. Salmonella enterica. Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella enterica sv. There was an unexpected error. Thus, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential acquisition, retention, and transmission of S. enterica by these phytophagous hemipteran insects. The S. enterica serovar cocktail was used to mitigate possible differences in the plant-microbe-insect interaction. These experiments were repeated 3 times, and 72 M. persicae and 71 M. quadrilineatus insects were examined. Given time and overall unidirectionality of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- ST34 transmission from Europe to the United States, it is likely that the acquisition of AARGs to quinolones occurred independently in the United States and in Europe. Mather), Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain (J. Alvarez), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interestingly, at the 48-h IAP time point, proportions of S. enterica-positive honeydew samples from M. quadrilineatus insects were significantly higher than those of M. persicae insects, independent of the diet (leaf or liquid). Specifically, adult insects were allowed access to each leaf disc or sachet for a 24-h IAP. Human salmonellosis, S. enterica infection, occurs in about 1.3 million people per year, an estimated 30% of all food borne illness, causing about 500 deaths and has an estimated cost of $2.4 billion dollars per year (3). Hong), Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (D. Boxrud), Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, UK (A.E. Comparison of correlated proportions of the presence of Salmonella enterica between matched pairs of samples based on individual Macrosteles quadrilineatus. Proportion of S. enterica-positive samples resulting from insects that were fed an inoculated liquid diet confined in Parafilm sachets for a 24-h acquisition access period (AAP) and then moved to two consecutive noninoculated leaf discs (white and black bars) or noninoculated liquid diets (gray bars) for 48 h following AAP. Salmonella enterica is acquired and retained by phytophagous hemipterans.Different variations on a common set of experiments were conducted in order to determine if phytophagous insects ingest S. enterica. Insects can become contaminated upon contact with S. enterica surface-contaminated plants (purple dots). Hence, insect movement on infested plants may directly influence the spatial distribution and persistence of S. enterica on leaves. S. enterica localization, excretion, and transmission assays.The overall methodologies used corresponding to these assays are illustrated in Fig. However, the transmission rates were reduced at both the 24- and 48-h IAP time points, independent of the source of inoculum (Fig. They are prevalent in food animals such as poultry, pigs, and cattle; and in pets, including cats, dogs, birds, and reptiles such as turtles. Additionally, McNemar's test was used to test for marginal homogeneity in contamination rates over time, based on proportions of insects testing positive for S. enterica. The probability of harboring most predominant acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (AARGs) conferring the resistance phenotypes described above was significantly higher for sequences of US isolates (odds ratio 2.37–26.05; Table). Is predominant with plants may directly influence the spatial distribution and persistence of Salmonella enterica in or phytophagous! 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