Symbolically, the "Grotte de Thétys" related to the myth of Apollo – and by that association to Louis XIV. Authentic gardens of versailles planter boxes are Inspired by the work of André Le Nôtre, gardener of the King Louis XIV of France, this beautiful gardens of versailles planter boxes from L'Orangerie from the palace of Versailles are perfect for topiaries and small trees.. ", Weber, Gerold. ", Weber, Gerold. Because of this tree, the bosquet was also known as the Bosquet du Chêne Vert. These additions were removed in 1708. 1693, "Bosquet des Dômes" by Jean Cotelle, ca. One final attempt to solve water shortage problems was undertaken in 1685. The gardens of the Palace of Versailles are in the Paris suburb of Versailles about 20km southwest of the centre of Paris. After we explored the Palace of Versailles in the morning, we made our way out to the expansive and opulent gardens, which sprawl over nearly 2,000 acres of land surrounding the palace. As part of the reorganization of the garden that was ordered by Louis XIV in the early part of the 18th century, the Apollo grouping was moved once again to the site of the Bosquet du Marais – located near the Latona Fountain – which was destroyed and was replaced by the new Bosquet des Bains d'Apollon. Following damage caused by a series of storms in the late 20th century, including one in December 1999, which was the most devastating, the garden has been fully replanted and now boasts a fresh, youthful appearance similar to how it would have looked to Louis XIV. Gardens of Versailles Plan view of the gardens of Versailles From 1661, Le Nôtre was working for Louis XIV to build and enhance the garden and parks of the Château de Versailles. Exterior of the Grotte de Thétysby Jean Le Pautre, 1672, Interior of the Grotte de Thétysby Jean Le Pautre, 1676, Apollo's horses groomed by two Tritons by Gilles Guérin, ca. (Marie, 1984; Thompson, 2006). The sculptors Jean-Baptiste Tuby, Étienne Le Hongre, Pierre Le Gros, and the brothers Gaspard and Balthazard Marsy worked on these thirty-nine fountains each of which was accompanied by a plaque on which the fable was printed, with verse written by Isaac de Benserade; from these plaques, Louis XIV's son learned to read. Administered by the Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles, an autonomous public entity operating under the aegis of the French Ministry of Culture, the gardens are now one of the most visited public sites in France, receiving more than six million visitors a year. The Pompe drew water from the Clagny pond using a system of windmills and horsepower to a cistern housed in the Pompe's building. Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau - Bosquet du Rond-Vert Located west of the Parterre du Midi and south of the Latona Fountain, this bosquet, which was designed by Le Nôtre and built between 1681 and 1683, features a semi-circular cascade that forms the backdrop for this salle de verdure. Le Petit Trianon and Garden, The Palace of Versailles… Dating from the time of Louis XIV and still using much of the same network of hydraulics as was used during the Ancien Régime, the fountains contribute to making the gardens of Versailles unique. Between 1684 and 1685, Jules Hardouin-Mansart built the Colonnade. Salle de Bal The roof of the grotto supported a reservoir that stored water pumped from the Clagny pond and which fed the fountains lower in the garden via gravity. Deux Bosquets - Bosquet de la Girondole - Bosquet du Dauphin - Quinconce du Nord - Quinconce du Midi Situated to the west of the palace, the gardens cover some 800 hectares of land, much of which is landscaped in the classic French formal garden style perfected here by André Le Nôtre. It was one of the most incredible places I have ever seen. ", Mâle, Émile. Originally, this bosquet was planned in 1672 as a simple pavillon d'eau – a round open expanse with a square fountain in the center. With the completion of the Grand Canal in 1671, which served as drainage for the fountains of the garden, water, via a system of windmills, was pumped back to the reservoir on top of the Grotte de Thétys. From the seat of power to a museum of the history of France. The scale is monumental and there is little sense of enclosure. 1693, "Bassin du Dragon" by Jean Cotelle, ca. The statue that currently occupies the center of the Colonnade – the Abduction of Persephone – (from the Grande Commande of 1664) was set in place in 1696 (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). ", Waltisperger, Chantal. (Marie 1972, 1975; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Pièce d'eau des Suisses [8], In 1662, minor modifications to the château were undertaken; however, greater attention was given to developing the gardens. Two talented landscape artists become romantically entangled while building a garden in King Louis XIV's palace at Versailles. Seeming to heed his great-grandfather's admonition not to engage in costly building campaigns, Louis XV did not undertake the costly building campaigns at Versailles that Louis XIV had. Originally designed by André Le Nôtre in 1661 as a salle de verdure, this bosquet contained a path encircling a central pentagonal area. Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe The gardens of Louis XIII required water and local ponds provided an adequate supply. Le Vau's enveloppe of the Louis XIII's château provided a means by which, though the decoration of the garden façade, imagery in the decors of the grands appartements of the king and queen formed a symbiosis with the imagery of the gardens. The Petit Trianon is associated with Marie-Antoinette, who spent her time there with her closest relatives and friends. Versailles is the most famous garden in the world. In 1671, André Le Nôtre conceived a bosquet – originally christened Salle des Festins and later called Salle du Conseil – that featured a quatrefoil island surrounded by a channel that contained fifty water jets. 1713, "Bosquet de l'Île Royale et le Bassin du Miroir" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. The areas were replanted with lime trees and were rechristened the Quinconce du Nord and the Quinconce du Midi (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). In 1685, the Machine de Marly came into full operation. The garden is open every day from 8.00 to 20.00. The bosquet was completely remodeled in 1704 at which time it was rechristened Bosquet de l'Étoile (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance. The event, which officially was to celebrate his mother, Anne d'Autriche, and his consort Marie-Thérèse but in reality celebrated Louise de La Vallière, Louis' mistress, was held in May of that year. "La clôture du grand parc de Versailles. Then, in 1860, much of the old growth from Louis XVI's replanting was removed and replaced. In 1672, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised a system by which the fountaineers in the garden would signal each other with whistles upon the approach of the king indicating that their fountain needed to be turned on. Technically, the "'Grotte de Thétys" played a critical role in the hydraulic system that supplied water to the garden. 1693, "Bassin de l'Encélade" Jean Cotelle, ca. While much of the chateau's interior was irreparably altered to accommodate the Museum of the History of France dedicated to "all the glories of France" (inaugurated by Louis-Philippe on 10 June 1837), the gardens, by contrast, remained untouched. During the Grandes Eaux, water is circulated by means of modern pumps from the Grand Canal to the reservoirs. The Île du Roi was separated from the Miroir d'Eau by a causeway that featured twenty-four water jets. Dangeau, Philippe de Courcillon, marquis de. Free Wi-Fi points are located in the Main Courtyard and at the garden entrance, and a free Gardens of Versailles app is available to download. Finally, 78 additional pumps raised the water to the aqueduct, which carried the water to Versailles and Marly. Conditions to access the estate of Versailles. 1693, "Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe-vue depuis la Salle basse" by Jean Cotelle, ca. In their history, the gardens of Versailles have undergone no less than five major replantations, which have been executed for practical and aesthetic reasons. Arguably one of the most beautiful parks in Ile-de-France (and the world! 1693, "Bosquet des trois fontaines-vue du côté" by Jean Cotelle, ca. In 1761, Louis XV commissioned Ange-Jacques Gabriel to build the Petit Trianon as a residence that would allow him to spend more time near the jardins botaniques. Louis XIV developed the palace to royal dimensions, making it the center of his court and government. The Palace of Versailles, the Grand and the Petit Trianon are closed. (Marie 1972, 1975; Nolhac 1901, 1925; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Modifications in the gardens during the third building campaign were distinguished by a stylistic change from the natural esthetic of André Le Nôtre to the architectonic style of Jules Hardouin Mansart. In 1661 Louis XIV entrusted André Le Nôtre with the creation and renovation of the gardens of Versailles, which he considered just as important as the Palace. Bosquet de l'Encélade ", Marriage, Thierry. 1693, "Salle des Festins ou Salle du Conseil" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. Under the direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the bosquet was completely remodeled in 1706. Between 1686 and 1689, when the Nine Years' War began, one-tenth of France's military was at work on the Canal de l'Eure project. Each lobe of the island contained simple fountain; access to the island was obtained by two swing bridges. In 1681, one of the most ambitious water projects conceived during the reign of Louis XIV was undertaken. 1693, "Le théâtre d'eau-vue de l'amphithéâtre" by Jean Cotelle, ca. A hunting lodge had been built there in the 1620s by Louis XIII. The gardens are open every day from 8 am to 8.30 pm during the high season (April to October) and from 8 am to 6 pm during the low season (November to March) except for exceptional events and when there are Fountains Night Show (closure at 5.30 pm). The attempt to convert Le Nôtre's masterpiece into an English-style garden failed to achieve its desired goal. ", Lighthart, Edward. Latona and her children, Apollo and Diana, being tormented with mud slung by Lycian peasants, who refused to let her and her children drink from their pond, appealed to Jupiter who responded by turning the Lycians into frogs. (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), With the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814, the gardens of Versailles witnessed the first modifications since the Revolution. The Labyrinthe contained fourteen water-wheels driving 253 pumps, some of which worked at a distance of three-quarters of a mile. Work on the gardens was started at the same time as the work on … (Thompson 2006), The Napoleonic era largely ignored Versailles. [2], In addition to the meticulous manicured lawns, parterres, and sculptures are the fountains, which are located throughout the garden. Between 1704 and 1709, bosquets were modified, some quite radically, with new names suggesting the new austerity that characterized the latter years of Louis XIV's reign. When the Versailles Gardens were complete, they included 372 statues, … Up Next. The Gardens of Versailles (French: Jardins du château de Versailles; French pronunciation: ​[ʒaʁdɛ̃ dy ʃato də versaij]) occupy part of what was once the Domaine royal de Versailles, the royal demesne of the château of Versailles. Located at the junction of the Grand Canal and the junction of the northern transversal branch, Little Venice housed the caravels and yachts that were received from The Netherlands and the gondolas and gondoliers received as gifts from the Doge of Venice, hence the name. (Berger, 1992; Marie, 1968, 1972, 1976; Nolhac, 1901; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1961, 1985; Weber, 1981), Bassin d'Apollon The scale is monumental and there is little sense of enclosure. The capacity of the Pompe – 600 m3 of water per day – alleviated some of the water shortages in the garden (Thompson, 2006). Salle des Festins - Salle du Conseil - Bosquet de l'Obélisque The Grande Commande, as the commission is known, comprised twenty-four statues of the classic quaternities and four additional statues depicting abductions from the classic past. Assiduous husbanding of this resource by museum officials prevents tapping into the supply of potable water of the city of Versailles (Thompson, 2006). This bosquet was conceived as an open-air gallery in which antique statues and copies acquired by the Académie de France in Rome were displayed. The most recent replantations of the gardens were precipitated by two storms that battered Versailles in 1990 and then again in 1999. 1693, "La Salle de bal" by Jean Cotelle, ca. [39] Citing repair and maintenance costs, Louis XVI ordered the Labyrinthe demolished in 1778. However, with an eye on economy, Louis XVI ordered the palissades – the labour-intensive clipped hedging that formed walls in the bosquets – to be replaced with rows of lime trees or chestnut trees. • Versailles was designed as a palatial centre of government for an absolute monarch, Louis XIV. Created in 1670, this bosquet originally contained a central rectangular pool surrounded by a turf border. The grotto was a freestanding structure located just north of the château. Yet, such is the story of Louis XV’s private gardens at the Trianon, a pair of palaces on the grounds of Versailles where the French monarchy retreated from the public view. [13] Occupying the site of Rondeau/Bassin des Cygnes of Louis XIII, the Apollo Fountain, which was constructed between 1668 and 1671, depicts the sun god driving his chariot to light the sky. This early layout, which has survived in the so-called Du Bus plan of c.1662, shows an established topography along which lines of the gardens evolved. Versailles Garden France Wall Art Print, France Art, Photography Prints, Versailles Garden Photography, France Wall Art, Versailles Print SkariStudio. Started in 1664 and finished in 1670 with the installation of the statuary by the Gilles Guérin, François Girardon, Thomas Regnaudin, Gaspard Marsy, and Balthazar Marsy, the grotto[11] formed an important symbolic and technical component to the gardens. Versailles and the Sun King (1643-1715) Louis XIII died in 1643, leaving the monarchy in the hands of the four-year-old Louis XIV. Sensing the potential threat to Versailles, Louis Claude Marie Richard (1754–1821) – director of the jardins botaniques and grandson of Claude Richard – lobbied the government to save Versailles. 1693, "Bosquet des trois fontaines-vue de face" by Jean Cotelle, ca. A century later, in 1817, Louis XVIII ordered the Île du Roi and the Miroir d'Eau to be completely remodeled as an English-style garden. Owing largely to the topology of the land, the English esthetic was abandoned and the gardens replanted in the French style. Situated at a low point in the gardens, it collected water it drained from the fountains in the garden above. Berger I, 1985; Bottineau, 1988; Mariage, 1986; Marie, 1968; Nolhac, 1901, 1925; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1961, 1985; Waltisperger, 1984; Weber, 1993. This is the currently selected item. Records indicate that late in the decade Claude Mollet and Hilaire Masson designed the gardens, which remained relatively unchanged until the expansion ordered under Louis XIV in the 1660s. Île du Roi - Miroir d'Eau - Jardin du Roi Accordingly, Louis XIV's building campaigns apply to the gardens as well. By damming the river and with a pumping system of five windmills, water was brought to the reservoirs located on the Satory Plateau. Bosquet de la Montagne d'Eau - Bosquet de l'Étoile The palace though is closed on Mondays and the Trianon Palace and Marie-Antoinette's Estate are only open in afternoons (not Monday). Rachel Ruysch, Fruit and Insects. Situated to the west of the Allée des Marmousets and replacing the short-lived Berceau d'Eau (a long and narrow bosquet created in 1671 that featured a water bower made by numerous jets of water), the enlarged bosquet was transformed by Le Nôtre in 1677 into a series of three linked rooms. William Hogarth, Marriage A-la-Mode (including Tête à Tête) Next lesson. Yet 'garden' is scarcely a fitting designation. Replenishment of the water lost due to evaporation comes from rainwater, which is collected in cisterns that are located throughout the gardens and diverted to the reservoirs and the Grand Canal. 1693, "Vue de l'intérieur du bosquet du Labyrinthe" by Jean Cotelle, ca. With Kate Winslet, Alan Rickman, Stanley Tucci, Matthias Schoenaerts. Fennebresque, Juste. Large amounts of soil had to be shifted to level the ground, create parterres, build the Orangery and dig out the fountains and Canal in places previously occupied solely by meadows and marshes. During the winter of 1774–1775, Louis XVI ordered the replanting of the gardens on the grounds that many of the trees were diseased or overgrown and needed to be replaced. "Le labyrinthe et l'esprit du XVIIe. In 1684, the island was removed and the total number of water jets in the bosquet was significantly reduced. Situated above the Latona Fountain is the terrace of the château, known as the Parterre d'Eau. To meet the needs of the early expansions of the gardens under Louis XIV, water was pumped to gardens from ponds near the château, with the Clagny pond serving as the principal source. Galerie d'Eau - Galerie des Antiques - Salle des Marronniers With a length of 1,500 metres and a width of 62 metres, the Grand Canal,[14] which was built between 1668 and 1671, physically and visually prolongs the east–west axis to the walls of the Grand Parc. It was as the cave of the sea nymph Thetis, where Apollo rested after driving his chariot to light the sky. Beginning in 1684, the Parterre d'Eau was remodeled under the direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Excavated in 1678, the Pièce d'eau des Suisses[31] – named for the Swiss Guards who constructed the lake – occupied an area of marshes and ponds, some of which had been used to supply water for the fountains in the garden. Located north and south of the east–west axis, these two bosquets were arranged as a series of paths around four salles de verdure and which converged on a central "room" that contained a fountain. (Marie 1976; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), With the departure of the king and court from Versailles in 1715 following the death of Louis XIV, the palace and gardens entered an era of uncertainty. Bassin d'Apollon - Apollo Fountain, contemporary view, "Versailles, le jardin du Roi" by Raimundo de Madrazo y Garreta, 1914–1920, oil on canvas, 17 x 30 cm, Musée Lambinet. Introduction. Gardens, Fountains and Sculptures Particularly if you're visiting in the spring, summer or early fall, a long stroll through the elaborate formal gardens designed by famed landscape architect André Le Nôtre are in order. The groves of Versailles created by André Le Nôtre, gardener and architect to the King, saw many Court entertainments and have often been modified over the years. Trees were brought in from different regions of France. La Colonnade with the "Abduction of Persephone" by François Girardon. These days, it’s difficult to imagine anything—certainly a garden—enduring for nearly 300 years. 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