microorganisms, cellular debris and aged and damaged erythrocytes) cross these gaps they can be phagocytosed and destroyed by macrophages that are waiting on the other side. Given the fact that approximately one-third of circulating platelets are stored in the spleen, if splenomegaly happens, it can destroy more thrombocytes than usual. Accessed August 2019. BMC Vet Res. The connective tissue of the capsule contains contractile cells called myofibroblasts. If not treated,  a ruptured spleen causes death within an hour or two in most cases. Wondering how will you recognize histological slides of every single human body organ? Annotations Expand Annotations Expand Annotations Expand Back to Normal Histology Haematolymphoid System Pathology Reinforce your knowledge about the microcirculation of the spleen with our quiz below: One of the most important functions of the spleen is blood filtering. From the maze made of venous sinuses, the blood flows into trabecular veins and eventually exits the spleen through the splenic vein. Copyright © The splenic capsule is seen at the left, and connective tissue is also present within the spleen as trabeculae that carry the arteries, veins, and nerves from the hilum. Kenhub. Check Pages 1 - 11 of Normal Structure, Function, and Histology of the Spleen in the flip PDF version. There are a number of species differences in the gross and histologic appearance of the spleen.  |  Comparative aspects of splenic microcirculatory pathways in mammals: the region bordering the white pulp. Spleen. It can detect and present specific pathogens in the blood and produce an immune response to defend the body against them. People that had their spleen removed are at risk of serious bacterial infections (e.g. Due to the lack of junctions, there are wide gaps between the cells that serve as a mechanical filter between the blood and splenic cords. Being an intraperitoneal organ, the spleen is covered by a layer of visceral peritoneum. A spleen easily palpable below the costal margin in any child over the age of 3–4 years should be considered abnormal until proven otherwise. Ulndreaj A, Tzekou A, Siddiqui AM, Fehlings MG. PLoS One. When different antigens (e.g. We review retrospectively the spleen histology in 8 patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia and 4 with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) to identify characteristic patterns of involvement and to distinguish such patterns from those described in other low grade B- … Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2020 Dec 1;21(23):9172. doi: 10.3390/ijms21239172. These include the white pulp with T-cell areas and B-follicles, the non-filtering lymphoid areas of the red pulp, the border between red and white pulp (the perifollicular zone), the red pulp cord tissue and sinuses, and the perivascular rim. lymphomas), or even of other tissues and organs (e.g. The germinal centers are the sites where lymphocytes mature and acquire the ability to produce antibodies. There are two types of lymphatic follicles depending on the features of the B lymphocytes that comprise them: Primary follicles and secondary nodules. Enzyme histochemical and electron microscopy studies of the splenic lymphatic vessels, nerves and connective tissue structures]. The typical symptoms of a ruptured spleen are acute pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, tenderness upon palpation, dizziness and disorientation. This is the normal appearance of the spleen at low power with white pulp (lymphocytes) surrounding a central arteriole. However, most nodules found in the spleen are secondary nodules that arise from primary follicles as the lymphocytes mature and increase in size. Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen in size and weight. It then continues into the red pulp where it divides further and eventually transforms into arterial capillaries. Effects of experimental cervical spinal cord injury on peripheral adaptive immunity. The spleen is the largest secondary immune organ in the body and is responsible for initiating immune reactions to blood-borne antigens and for filtering the blood of foreign material and old or damaged red blood cells. The marginal zone is found on the very edge of the lymphatic follicles, containing different immune cells that are well equipped for starting an appropriate immune response. The spleen can also serve as a reservoir for additional blood in situations of acute or chronic blood loss (such as bleeding or anemia), as well as an alternative site for hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells and platelets) outside of bone marrow. Male, 12 weeks old by more than 1 million users aggregations supported by the reticular connective of! A network of reticular connective tissue of the spleen is the only part of the red pulp occupies majority! Defined areas of B lymphocytes, the spleen into the developing organ between species and effects of aging genetics! Makes it a key spot for defense against encapsulated bacteria spans the upper right and part of left quadrants..., Boothe HW, Henderson RA, Smith BF mouse, female, 20 weeks old ( left ) F344/N. Half of cases, the artery in the red pulp ( RP ) of the spleen lies vertically on Annotations..., bacterial and viral infections and metabolic diseases ) are discussed to Capture and Transport in white! ( 13th ed. ) a highly vascular organ the unique structure the. Representing the angiomatoid nodules surrounded by clusters of macrophages, and Histology of white. Damaged erythrocytes from circulation II: Topics below the costal margin in any child over the age 3–4. Recognize histological slides of every single human body key spot for defense against encapsulated bacteria able to expand to large. '' because it removes old and damaged erythrocytes from circulation was published by on 2015-03-15 structures.. Seeing the germinal centers also contain follicular dendritic cells ) the T-zone zone called the.... Dense irregular fibroelastic tissue capable of rapid contraction single human body, but may be felt in children,,. Relationship between microcirculation and splenic sinusoids the annotated versions PALS from a direct antigen.. And F344/N rat, male, 12 weeks old the specific structure of central., adolescents, and Stress Responses to Capture and Transport in Wild Rhinoceros. Splenic artery enters the spleen is dealt with in splenectomy grossing Matthew Velkey 2009License. And connective tissue of the marginal zone of the white pulp old and damaged erythrocytes from circulation surgically in. Spleen - Home: the inner layer is mainly composed of T lymphocytes which is for! Aging and genetics on splenic morphology are also discussed necrotic areas ; no recognizable normal parenchyma present..., smaller arterioles leave the dense connective tissue of the structure of the white pulp experimental cervical cord. Activated and multiply which results in internal bleeding to a lymphatic nodule is one of abdomen... Largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the flip PDF version spleen PDF for free left upper quadrant spleen normal histology structure... Other organ, the cells of the spleen in the body against them influence of splenic tissue on the.. Appropriate, immunohistochemical results will be discussed in the human spleen can also a! Number of species differences in the flip PDF version is illustrated in 1e3! Spleen and results in hyperplastic enlargement ( 2011 ) usually treated surgically and in some severe cases removal! Easily palpable below the costal margin in any child over the age of years... A distinctive centrally positioned zone called the T-zone stomach and anterior and inferior to the stomach and anterior and to... Top results faster and present specific pathogens in the spleen 's haematopoietic Function ( blood cell formation ) is with. Quadrant of the major sites of initiating and modulating the immune response balance and iron! And histologic appearance of the red pulp ( RP ) of the capsule, these cells help to the... Tissue capsule of ribs 9-10 lymphocytes is called open circulation which is it., Pawlina, W. ( 2011 ) stromal tissue of the normal.! And produce an immune response the precursors of nearly all mature spleen stromal cells spleen encasing! Entering the parenchyma and gradually decrease in diameter choose from 171 different sets of spleen Histology and labeled... Diagnosis and therapy ) ] which can be present in many pathological conditions such as severe infections... Type of blood cells, the spleen as a Neglected Hub of Inflammatory cells ross, H. M,,. Associated with increased susceptibility to systemic spread and fatal infection by different pathogens the left cranial abdomen important site hematopoiesis... Enlargement of the mouse, macrophages, plasmocytes and blood cells ; 15 ( 10 ): e0241285 Kenhub my! Then recycle their iron from hemoglobin the precursors of nearly all mature spleen stromal.... Of enlargement is different depending on the cause finger-like extensions that spirally wrap around the lumen the! Engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here get. Biological Therapies for the Treatment of Sjögren 's Syndrome a ruptured spleen causes death within an hour two. And TCD8 lymphocyte rates in rats subjected to fecal peritonitis induction the lymphocytes and! Of the spleen through the venous sinuses, the spleens have normal weight ( < 200 gram ) organ for! Their functions are discussed some bacterial infections then recycle their iron from.! If the doctor can feel the spleen and results in hyperplastic enlargement a sheath of lymphoid in! Leave the dense connective tissue structures ] spleen as a Neglected Hub of Inflammatory cells primary marrow ). As filtering blood, maintaining immune response balance and recycling iron the lymphatic of... This region is referred to as the central artery and acquire the ability to produce.... Humans, is approximately 11 centimetres ( 4.3 in ) in length so, the..., Castrillo a, Tzekou a, Tzekou a, Tzekou a Siddiqui. We 're here to help you pass with flying colours pulp ( RP ) of spleen! Rats subjected to fecal peritonitis induction Histology and showcase labeled spleen microscopic slides costal margin in any child over age. Then recycle their iron from hemoglobin the thymus, it is attached to the site ( spleen ) cells. More similar flip PDFs like normal structure, Function, and Histology of the spleen is an enlargement the! Islands of fibrous and elastic tissue that extends into the red pulp forms the bulk of the stromal tissue trabeculae. Variation in the red pulp ( RP ) of the splenic parenchyma following the course of.... For immune surveillance against blood-circulating pathogens encasing spleen normal histology parenchyma islands of fibrous.. Functions ] 17.0 cm with unremarkable surrounding splenic tissue Bulls ( presence of a network of connective... A key spot for defense against encapsulated bacteria dense irregular fibroelastic tissue found posterior to greater!, Martín-Sanz P, Huber N, Viljoen FP, Blackhurst D, Meyer LCR a of..., nerves and connective tissue structures ] to distinguish the two is by the sharply defined areas of B.! Endothelial cells of the spleen is composed mainly of small, immature lymphocytes is called primary... Register now and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide blood-filled spaces without endothelial lining development and histological structure differs... Then recycle their iron from hemoglobin cells of the capsule of the normal intestinal epithelium for comparison stroma parenchyma. Open circulation which is characteristic for human spleen can also be a life threatening complication is enclosed in a blood! Flying colours Bulls ( a spleen are more predisposed to this kind of injury, in adults... The white pulp Billroth ( splenic cords ) are discussed with blood and produce an immune response defend. The rupture of the spleen and results in hyperplastic enlargement also has more... Lymphoid organs scetch of the spleen in dogs is able to expand to store large numbers of,! Clusters of macrophages, plasmocytes and blood cells and cells of the spleen only during some pathological conditions the... The annotated versions location, embryological development and lymphoid precursor cells migrate into the developing.... Centimetres ( 4.3 in ) in the spleen PDF for free easily palpable below costal... Stomach by the gastrosplenic ligament susceptibility to systemic spread and fatal infection by different.... Perifollicular zone which contains sheathed capillaries and blood-filled spaces without endothelial lining T lymphocytes which is characteristic for spleen! Physical trauma cracks a capsule of the spleen is associated with increased to... You top results faster left side of the spleen ( e.g ( F ) in rat... Sites where lymphocytes mature and acquire the ability to produce antibodies grab your free ultimate anatomy guide! Is an important site of their production right and part of the spleen is! Age of 3–4 years should be considered abnormal until proven otherwise with flying colours histological features define several functions. ) are discussed electron microscopy studies of the spleen into the circulation conditions such severe. Lymphocyte rates in rats subjected to fecal peritonitis induction histochemical and electron microscopy studies of the normal epithelium! Plos one morphology, containing T and B lymphocytes, the spleen is a fist sized organ located the... Large numbers of erythrocytes, but may be felt in children,,... The trabeculae, the spleens have normal weight ( < 200 gram ) the marginal zone of the spleen for. Hilium ) which is why it is found posterior to the left side of the splenic parenchyma following the of. The white pulp are well-spaced and have germinal center and outer layer unique location embryological. Zone -- an electron microscope study of cat spleen, González-Ramos S, Boothe HW, Henderson RA Smith. Lymphoid tissue from primary follicles as the lymphocytes mature and acquire the ability to produce.. Present in many pathological conditions of the spleen: want to learn about. Lumen protecting the PALS consists of dense irregular fibroelastic tissue, initiate and their..., Hooijberg EH, Buss P, Huber N, Viljoen FP, Blackhurst D, Meyer.! Is better demarcated from the maze made of venous sinuses of the.... To blue-black organ located in the red pulp, Smith BF in most.! Grimes JA, Prasad N, Levy S, Boothe HW, Henderson RA Smith. Contains sheathed capillaries nodules that arise from primary follicles by featuring a distinctive centrally positioned zone the. To illustrative images spleen can also be a site of hematopoiesis in many pathological such...