(iii) Workers who do more than the standard work. It makes an organization more democratic by reducing patronage and other privileged treatment. (ii) It brings regularity in the conduct of the employees. Administrative theory focused on the total organization It is focused on the administrative aspects of management which directly or indirectly effect productivity of the organisation. This theory says that workers need only physical and economic status and needs. In this article, we will explore the Classical Organizational Theory. It implies that formal education and training is required for developing managers. She explained the psychological effects of fatigue. These theories are building blocks of the contemporary theories developed later. Moreover, classical management theory outlines a clear structure of the management, clear identification of roles and responsibilities of employees and division of labour to increase productivity. Functions of Management according to Fayol: Principles of Management according to Fayol: (vi) Priority to general interest over individual interest. The rest refreshes the workers. The literary meaning of scientific management is performing the work of management in a scientific manner. (2) Principle of Scientific Selection and Training of Workers: According to this principle, the selection and training of workers should be done in a scientific manner. Scientific study and analysis of each element of a job to replace the rule of thumb; b. In other words, discarding the traditional approaches to management and adopting newer and more scientific approaches in their place is called scientific management. where is it to be done? Theories of management are very important for any business and organization.The experts have presented different management theories for the successful running of organization. (vi) The efficiency of the organisation can be increased by making each individual efficient. The approach also places an emphasis on higher quality, cost reduction and better management and worker relationships. Fayol brought into existence many invaluable principles in order to solve the problems of high ranking managers. According to the traditional techniques of management, this was usually done by the Foreman, however Taylor has advised the establishment of a Personnel Department for this purpose. In other words, they gave their suggestions about improvement where such improvements were possible. … (iv) The organization is perpetually on the move because attention is paid not to the individual but the offices. Generally, the same workers do the same task so they learn to do it very well. This was mainly due to the increase in efficiency by the application of scientific management. The principles developed under this approach are accepted even today. Since there is a provision of giving a good rate of bonus under this plan, it motivates all the workers to do more work. They include: 1. It means that whatever is done under management is done in a similar manner in all the organizations. (i) Workers with a capacity to work less than the standard work. Fayol was a senior manager. Each group should be assigned work which it can accomplish more efficiently. This level is generally responsible for making the long-term goals of the organization. This creates higher output and efficiency. The classical approach to management started around the year 1900. In this way, if the time required for doing the work is not properly determined, the manager would be accountable, and if the work has not been performed properly the labourer would be responsible. According to this theory, administration of all organizations requires the same rational processes. The approach also places an emphasis on higher quality, cost reduction and better management and worker relationships. (3) Principle of Cooperation between Labour and Management: As per this principle, such an atmosphere should be created in the organisation that labour (the major factor of production) and management consider each other indispensable. There may be so many causes of fatigue, such as long working hours, poor working conditions, unsuitable work, unhappy relations with the boss, etc. We shall now study them in detail. This approach is also called Process Management. The implementation of a scientific management system increases efficiency which is very beneficial for the organisation. Fayol is also called the father of administrative management in the same way as Taylor is called the father of scientific management. Learn about the three branches of classical approach: 1. The classical approach to management started around the year 1900. It was found that only 35 girls were sufficient to do the same work which was previously being done by 120 girls. It does not include social and job satisfaction of the workers. In a system of scientific management, each worker is paid wages according to his capabilities. (5) Principle of Equal Division of Responsibility: According to this principle, the work of the organisation and the related responsibilities should be clearly divided among the two main groups in the organisation (Management and Labour). Administrative theory focused on the total organization It is focused on the administrative aspects of management which directly or indirectly effect productivity of the organisation. Max Weber, a German social scientist, advocated the bureaucratic approach to management. In bureaucracy, rules and procedures serve as guidelines for initiating various actions. Next, through conducting various examinations, capable persons are selected. Taylor has devised the following techniques for actually implementing the principles of scientific management: Scientific management requires deep analysis of all the activities being performed in the organisation with the aim of producing the maximum possible output with the minimum possible efforts. We find the following similarities between Taylor and Fayol in their thoughts: Both the management experts have presented solutions to the managerial problems based on their experience and experiments. As is clear, such a system increases the efficiency of labourers, as a result of which they are able to earn higher wages. The main faults or criticisms of scientific management are: The owners of the businesses have criticised scientific management on the following grounds: Implementing a system of scientific management in place of the old tried and tested system is not an easy task. These management theories and especially the classical management theory lasted for a few decades after inception. His focus of study has been the problems of the high ranking managers and for this simple reason he has come to be known as an administrative specialist. As per this principle, both the labour as well as management should make full efforts to produce the maximum output. According to Taylor, instead of fighting over division of profits, both the parties should make efforts for increasing the profits. Three well established theories of Classical Management are Scientific Management Theory, Administrative Theory and Bureaucratic In his efforts to do so, he conducted a number of experiments and proved that – (i) if the various parts of the process of production are reduced to the minimum, (ii) while working, unnecessary movements of the body are eliminated, (iii) the time required for doing every work is determined and (iv) recognising that human beings are not inanimate objects and hence are likely to feel fatigued, proper arrangements for their resting are made, then incompetence will be totally eliminated from the organisation. This is generally the case with the government departments or big business organizations. Share Your Word File
In other words, major functions and basic principles of management have universal applicability. The classical theory developed in three streams, namely: Scientific management implies the application of scientific methods of study and analysis to the problems of management. It lays emphasis on detecting errors and correcting them once they have been committed. This approach sees projects that are broken into smaller tasks and are easier to complete. The classical approach is one of the oldest approaches to management and is also known by various names such as, Functional approach, Management Process approach and Administrative Management approach. However, if it is implemented in the right type of environment, there can be many advantages to the theory. Mrs. Gilbreth who was a Ph.D. in Psychology, gave special importance to human resource in industry. He believed that bureaucratic organization is an ideal organization to utilize all the resources effectively. The classical approach is one of the oldest approaches to management and is also known by various names such as, Functional approach, Management Process approach and Administrative Management approach. The Classical Management Theory is thought to have originated around the year 1900 and dominated management thinking into the 1920s, focusing on the efficiency of the work process. In this way, Gilbreth couple made a significant contribution to the development of scientific management. These three classical theories are- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory; Herzberg’s Two factor theory; Theory X and Theory Y. According to Taylor, a revolution in mindset of both the managers and the workers is required as it will promote feelings of cooperation, and will be beneficial for both the parties. The labourers are divided into three categories on the basis of their work capacity. Bureaucratic organization is the most rational means of carrying out proper control over human beings. 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