Hollander & Carr (36) compared and contrasted the acceptability and impact of telemedicine versus in-person consultations. Specifically, according to Huang et al. 2019-2020 Frontiers in Psychiatry 影响指数是 3.360。 Frontiers in Psychiatry的最新影响指数分区 為1区。 www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/coronavirus.html. 25. United States Food and Drug Administration. Our on-the-ground conversations provided an outlook of how kratom growers, vendors, and users perceive COVID-19 and its impact, providing a starting point for systematic investigation. Even prior to the pandemic, the kratom supply chain experienced significant, repeated disruptions and episodes of consumer uncertainty. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD). Loop is the open research network that increases the discoverability and impact of researchers and their work. doi: 10.7326/M20-1212. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1, 3. JAMA Psychiatry (2020). Developing multidisciplinary support platforms could be helpful in reducing the mental distress due to misinformation and teaching problem-solving strategies to cope with the pandemic (13). Frontiers in Psychiatry Journal Impact 2019-20. Stress and sleep: a survey based on wearable sleep trackers among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medicinal chemistry and neuropharmacology of kratom: a preliminary discussion of a promising medicinal plant and analysis of its potential for abuse. In: Europol EMCfDaDAa, editor. Levine DA. Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of World Psychiatry grew by 45.72% . El Metric de Impacto 2019 de Frontiers in Psychiatry es 3.360 (Datos más recientes en 2020). Volkow ND. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/dtac/srb_sept2015.pdf (Accessed May19, 2020). Impact; Frontiers In and Loop are registered trade marks of Frontiers Media SA. Psychiatry 11:574483. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574483. COVID-19: stress management among healthcare workers (2020). It is crucial to strengthen telemedicine and support it with appropriate governance and funding in order to be able to monitor the mental health situation post-pandemic. Previous disasters such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 (4–6) contributed to increased anxiety, mood, and thought disorders, adjustment disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) (1, 7–15), resulting, in extreme cases, in suicidal behaviours (e.g., suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and actual suicide) (10, 16), especially in cases of concomitant Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (17, 18). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.08.026, 3. These issues can also encourage shifts to more at-risk drug using behaviours such as use of drugs such as street benzodiazepines, and synthetic cannabinoids (31). The Internet will likely be an increasing method for monitoring sales, user reaction to COVID-19, issues related to supply, and motivations for use during the pandemic. Interventions addressing the health, psychological, and social effects of the pandemic are required. The healthcare workers who experienced sleeplessness were also more likely to feel depressed, anxious and have stress-based trauma, according to the paper. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Mental health survey of medical staff in a tertiary infectious disease hospital for COVID-19. Neuropharmacology. 21. In addition, kratom products may also produce dose- and strain-dependent stimulant and sedative effects (4). FDA. Still, users were cognizant of the possibility of kratom shortages if the pandemic continues. Impact Factor: 2.118 ℹ Impact Factor: 2019: 2.118 The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.012. Projected Deaths of Despair During the Coronavirus Recession. |, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574483, https://www.americankratom.org/mediak/news/consumer-alert-on-covid-19-claims-and-kratom.html, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 19. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.007, 10. Silver Spring, MD: United States Food and Drug Administration (2018). doi: 10.1080/08897077.2020.1752351. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.062.
Mamun MA, Griffiths MD. Drug Alcohol Depend. Articles, National Institute for Public Health, Slovenia. A case-control study with service and research implications for immunopsychiatry. 31. Given the limited number of kratom users informally consulted (n = 42), these anecdotes cannot be generalized. Ann Intern Med (2020a) 173(1):61–2. Nonetheless, in the US it is estimated that 10–15 million people consume kratom primarily for the self-treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, to mitigate withdrawal from or dependence on opioids, and to self-treat opioid use disorder or other substance use disorders (SUDs). The majority of vendors have not seen changes in supplies of kratom products since December 2019 although they expressed uncertainty as to whether that may change in the future if COVID-19 leads to the imposition of additional commercial restrictions. Hunger for Opioid Alternative Drives Boom in Borneo Jungle. Drug Alcohol Depend. A majority of user surveys and numerous observational studies suggest that kratom is widely used in Western nations for a range of conditions, including self-treatment of acute and chronic pain, psychiatric conditions, such as depressive and anxiety disorders, and mitigation of withdrawal symptoms from addictive drugs, both illicit and prescribed, particularly opioid-based medications (8). Disrupted trade routes via sea or air have been reported for some kratom products, although it is unknown to what degree this has impacted global kratom supply to date. Dsouza DD, Quadros S, Hyderabadwala ZJ, Mamun MA. (2016) 126:41–6. Holmes EA, O’Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.038, 9. Ann Intern Med (2020) 173(1):59–60. Cinosi E, Martinotti G, Simonato P, Singh D, Demetrovics Z, Roman-Urrestarazu A, et al. The COVID-19 pandemic is already impacting drug markets, including shortages of numerous types of drugs at the street level, price increases for consumers on the black market and reductions in purity. J Subst Use. 17
COVID-19: ACMD advice on proposed legislative changes to enable supply of controlled drugs during a pandemic (April 2020). Similarly, due to COVID-19, manual laborers who were daily wage earners lost their income and could not afford kratom products to self-treat medical conditions. Brain Res Bull. Evid Based Ment Health (2020) 23(2):45–6. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): the evolution of an enhancer from a traditional use to increase work and productivity in Southeast Asia to a recreational psychoactive drug in western countries. Research Topics ... For more information: Frontiers’ Report. It will also be important to raise awareness among healthcare professionals if current kratom users circumstantially experience shortages. 28. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). https://www.epicentro.iss.it/en/coronavirus/sars-cov-2-stress-management-healthcare-workers (Accessed July 7, 2020). doi: 10.14423/smj.0000000000000256, 39. Varadi A, Marrone GF, Palmer TC, Narayan A, Szabo MR, Le Rouzic V, et al. Risk of death associated with kratom use compared to opioids. Of concern, some sources have noted increases in unscientific claims made by irresponsible vendors regarding kratom's supposed “anti-coronavirus” properties (23). Frontiers’ story began in 2007, with the first journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. 1. 1. Specifically, access to community maintenance, e.g., expand methadone delivery via mobile teams for quarantined patients should be facilitated (40, 41). However, in traditional settings, kratom users have their own methods for mitigating kratom withdrawal symptoms. Considering the potential importance of kratom as a self-treatment strategy or harm-reduction component for SUDs, an unanticipated supply disruption may lead to a rise in opioid and other drug use with subsequently increased risk for overdose and fatality. Suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1060, 13. Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2017) 176:63–70. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. Vendors are expecting a resumption in purchasing now that some shops are reopening, and anticipate a return to typical sales volume. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017, 12. However, in-person consultations are still needed for certain groups of patients where maintenance in treatment is at risk. Alternative drugs or medications might be considered by users including quetiapine, gabapentinoids, Z-drugs (e.g., zolpidem) (37–39) and some Over-The-Counter (OTC) medications (37, 38), such as codeine; ephedrine and pseudoephedrine; and the antidiarrhoeal loperamide (“poor man’s methadone”). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2017) 180:340–8. Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use.
The number of kratom users outside of Southeast Asia has increased significantly in recent decades with use spreading to the Unites States (US) and Europe. AG-R serves as a scientific advisor for ETHA Natural Botanicals, a distributor of kratom supplements. Biomed Res Int. doi: 10.1248/cpb.52.916, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, 2. Mental health care for medical staff and affiliated healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe that these anecdotal accounts will help researchers identify key areas of focus in the coming year. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.045, 29.
Journal Impact 2019-20; Frontiers in Psychiatry; Abréviation. Healthcare professionals have an important role in educating patients about the common psychological effects of a pandemic. The Journal Impact Quartile of Frontiers in Psychiatry is Q1 . doi: 10.1177/0269881119862530, 14. Further information is also needed to improve our understanding on how the impact of COVID-19 is affecting kratom users in terms of obtaining unadulterated kratom products, as well as other important occurrences that could affect kratom supply, patterns of use and its therapeutic popularity among users. Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. Requests to access these datasets should be directed to Oliver Grundmann, firstname.lastname@example.org. https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/covid-19-will-worsen-the-opioid-overdose-crisis-if-we-dont-prepare-now/ (Accessed May 25, 2020). FDA. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2020.04.005. Psychiatry 11:602524. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.602524. 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